Measurement of hard-life experiences through the psychological sense: the SEM approach

Bui Thi Thanh Mai1,, Tran Manh Dung2, Vu Tuan Anh2
1 Mien Trung University of Civil Engineering, Phu Yen, Vietnam
2 National Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam

Main Article Content


This paper aims to develop a scale for hard-life experiences through a psychological sense. Past hardships can impact individuals' cognition, stress levels, and resilience. Learning about hard-life experiences is one aspect of longitudinal studies on the historical life of key leaders, focusing on the traumatic feelings from childhood to adulthood. The sample consists of answers from 149 key leaders who are business owners, managers, and entrepreneurs in Vietnam. The structural equation modeling was applied to investigate the validity and reliability of hard-life experience measurement scales with two coherent constructs. This study discovers two sub-scales chronic and acute hard-life experiences to measure key leaders’ hardship during their lifetime, equivalent for the period of childhood up to adolescence, and the adult period of individual key leaders essentially. This study makes a significant contribution by introducing a new benchmark to the existing literature on the experiences of business owners, crucial managers, and entrepreneurs. Scholars can use this scale to investigate relationships between hard-life experience factors and others by quantitative methods.

Article Details


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